This era begins in 509 BC according to official Roman History. Rome was extended through the Italic peninsula and continued its expansion. Since the first century BC, this empire would be governed by emperors. During five centuries.
There were many kinds of societies, because differences between rich people and poor people instituted slavery and so free and rich men called patricians and free but not rich people called commoners had different rights. Free people had all duties, they could have properties, be a kind of deputy in roman institutions and they could be elected.
Roman citizens were the people born in the city of Rome so that they had all rights. Latin citizens were people born in Lacio, they had restricted rights. Half-free people had fewer rights than a free person. This structure went on until the middle Ages even in some parts of Rome until the 20th century.
The High Era of the Roman Republic
The first part of the Roman republic was called the high era of the Roman Republic, this era was characterized by the conflicts between patricians and commoners, these conflicts weakened the structure that the Roman republic previously had.
The marked social differences made that common class feel that their rights were not sufficient, and so in 300 BC the patricians decided to allow the commoners have access to an education at Pontifical College.
The Middle Era of the Roman Republic
In 265 BC, Rome had finished its expansion through Italy, military turned important, a new Roman institution known as the Senate was taking some relevance. The Senate took decisions about all referent to the destiny of Rome.
In this period the Roman Republic went into some troubles because the new amendments issued by the Senate made the newly conquered peoples get into political and religious conflicts. The lowest of the Roman Republic.
The decline era of the Roman Republic
Territorial expansion made it necessary to create a strong central state to maintain the conquests. The republic was embroiled in a series of civil wars which weakened the senate. The social tensions committed the stability of institutions. In 46 BC, the conflict between Pompey who was the representative of the senate and the new military and political leader Julius Caesar came into conflict, so that Julius Caesar was appointed dictator to have absolute power. Julius Caesar was murdered by the roman senate, because he made many mistakes that harmed Rome.
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